butterfly species name
A possible source of the name is the bright yellow male of the brimstone (Gonepteryx rhamni); another is that butterflies were on the wing in meadows during the spring and summer butter season while the grass was growing. They can see polarized light and therefore orient even in cloudy conditions. The flowers Some like the oakleaf butterfly and autumn leaf are remarkable imitations of leaves. If one wing is surgically removed early on, the other three will grow to a larger size.  The Norwegian naturalist Kjell Sandved compiled a photographic Butterfly Alphabet containing all 26 letters and the numerals 0 to 9 from the wings of butterflies. The butterfly starts life as a caterpillar, which cocoons itself in a silky thread. The larval host plant is the false indigo bush, Amorpha fruticosa (a legume). Goliath Birdwing - Ornithoptera goliath. Both belong to the order Lepidoptera and are represented by over 165,000 species globally with, rather surprisingly, Moths making up the greater portion of this total. Culturally, butterflies are a popular motif in the visual and literary arts. The common name literally means “Emperor of India” Red-Spotted Apollo Butterfly (Parnassius apollo) 8 – Red-Spotted Apollo Butterfly (Parnassius apollo) WIKI: This species is of interest to entomologists due to the variety of subspecies, often only restricted to a specific valley in the Alps.  Some species are myrmecophiles, forming mutualistic associations with ants and gaining their protection.  As caterpillars, many defend themselves by freezing and appearing like sticks or branches. Thumbnail Galleries & Indexes There are over 18000 butterfly species in the world.  Some butterflies have organs of hearing and some species make stridulatory and clicking sounds. , Caterpillars are also affected by a range of bacterial, viral and fungal diseases, and only a small percentage of the butterfly eggs laid ever reach adulthood. , Some larvae, especially those of the Lycaenidae, form mutual associations with ants. It is not clear how it dispersed; adults may have been blown by the wind or larvae or pupae may have been accidentally transported by humans, but the presence of suitable host plants in their new environment was a necessity for their successful establishment. , One of the most popular, and most often recorded, songs by Sweden's eighteenth-century bard, Carl Michael Bellman, is "Fjäriln vingad syns på Haga" (The butterfly wingèd is seen in Haga), one of his Fredman's Songs. Butterflies, along with the moths and the skippers, make up the insect order Lepidoptera. The pupa or chrysalis, unlike that of moths, is not wrapped in a cocoon. Pierids are rather conspicuous white, yellow, or orange butterflies, with around 1000 species worldwide. A group of hobbyist butterfly trackers attempting to document and learn about the different butterfly species in the Nilgiris has helped expand the knowledge-base of the life cycles of two rare butter Large blue (Phengaris arion) caterpillars trick Myrmica ants into taking them back to the ant colony where they feed on the ant eggs and larvae in a parasitic relationship.. , When the larva is fully grown, hormones such as prothoracicotropic hormone (PTTH) are produced. Thumbnail galleries: The head is small and dominated by the two large compound eyes.  In the English county of Devon, people once hurried to kill the first butterfly of the year, to avoid a year of bad luck. They communicate with the ants using vibrations that are transmitted through the substrate as well as using chemical signals. A third subfamily, the Heteropterinae, is weakly differentiated from the other skipper subfamilies, but the lone California representative is distinctive: Carterocephalus palaemon. Chemical defences are widespread and are mostly based on chemicals of plant origin. It is also called the 'purple emperor' but this name also refers to the European butterfly Apatura iris (see above). Our two Parnassius species are the only California representatives of this relatively small group. , The egg stage lasts a few weeks in most butterflies, but eggs laid close to winter, especially in temperate regions, go through a diapause (resting) stage, and the hatching may take place only in spring. In California, they can be grouped into the coppers (subfamily Lycaeninae), the blues (subfamily Polyommatinae), and the hairstreaks (subfamily Theclinae). Brimstone. The butterflies are not glued, they are gently pressed against the glass by the cotton. This is lined with a thin coating of wax which prevents the egg from drying out before the larva has had time to fully develop. During this phase, the cuticle, a tough outer layer made of a mixture of chitin and specialized proteins, is released from the softer epidermis beneath, and the epidermis begins to form a new cuticle. Some also derive nourishment from pollen, tree sap, rotting fruit, dung, decaying flesh, and dissolved minerals in wet sand or dirt. The Metal-marks are a dramatically colored and patterned, and consist of at least 1250 species. In the pupa, the wing forms a structure that becomes compressed from top to bottom and pleated from proximal to distal ends as it grows, so that it can rapidly be unfolded to its full adult size. There have been decades of debates about how to classify the group and what traits are important and useful. , Nearly all butterflies are diurnal, have relatively bright colours, and hold their wings vertically above their bodies when at rest, unlike the majority of moths which fly by night, are often cryptically coloured (well camouflaged), and either hold their wings flat (touching the surface on which the moth is standing) or fold them closely over their bodies. , As in all insects, the body is divided into three sections: the head, thorax, and abdomen. You can find them in all types of habitats including urban areas. The butterfly starts life as a caterpillar, which cocoons itself in a silky thread. Brushfoots are some of our largest and recognizable butterflies, including the monarch (Danaus plexippus), painted lady (Vanessa cardui), California tortoiseshell (Nymphalis californica), and mourning cloak (Nymphalis antiopa). The work of botanist Carl Linnaeus led to the scientific naming system used to identify plants and animals. The Oxford English Dictionary derives the word straightforwardly from Old English butorflēoge, butter-fly; similar names in Old Dutch and Old High German show that the name is ancient. Other common names, depending on region, include milkweed, common tiger, wanderer, and black veined brown. Pieridae. The 1,000 species making up the Riodinidae family often have metallic spots on their wings, giving them the name “metalmarks.” Butterfly Barbs are one of the smaller species of Barb. , A group of insects in the order Lepidoptera.  Copulation takes place tail-to-tail and may last from minutes to hours. This family contains the largest and some of the most recognizable of all California butterflies. The number of generations per year varies from temperate to tropical regions with tropical regions showing a trend towards multivoltinism. Butterfly lifespan. This signal is commonly mimicked by other butterflies, usually only females. The long proboscis can be coiled when not in use for sipping nectar from flowers. Some day-flying moths, such as the hummingbird hawk-moth, are exceptions to these rules. Most butterfly caterpillars eat one, or sometimes several, related species of plants. As a comparison, there are some 17,500 species known in the world. , Butterflies are distributed worldwide except Antarctica, totalling some 18,500 species. , The reproductive stage of the insect is the winged adult or imago. See the complete park butterfly species list below. The second and third segments of the thorax bear the wings. A Batesian mimic imitates another species to enjoy the protection of that species' aposematism. Some species look completely different if viewed from the top or bottom sides of the wings and are included in more than one section. The thorax is composed of three segments, each with a pair of legs.  Others have deimatic behaviours, such as rearing up and waving their front ends which are marked with eyespots as if they were snakes. A. Adonis Blue. A newly emerged butterfly needs to spend some time inflating its wings with hemolymph and letting them dry, during which time it is extremely vulnerable to predators.  The life histories of their host plants also influence butterfly behaviour. Butterflies can only fly when their temperature is above 27 °C (81 °F); when it is cool, they can position themselves to expose the underside of the wings to the sunlight to heat themselves up. Many species have long larval life stages while others can remain dormant in their pupal or egg stages and thereby survive winters. , Butterfly eggs are fixed to a leaf with a special glue which hardens rapidly. Some are cultivated as ornamentals for their showy flowers. Butterfly etymology. Geographic Range: Widely distributed across North Africa, the Americas, Europe, Asia, and the Caribbean  These defence mechanisms are effective only if they are well advertised; this has led to the evolution of bright colours in unpalatable butterflies (aposematism). Our genera are Battus and Papilio. The Tiger Swallowtail Butterfly's Scientific Name  It has recently been shown that the British painted lady undertakes a 9,000-mile round trip in a series of steps by up to six successive generations, from tropical Africa to the Arctic Circle — almost double the length of the famous migrations undertaken by monarch. A Roman sculpture depicts a butterfly exiting the mouth of a dead man, representing the Roman belief that the soul leaves through the mouth. Their name is derived from their erratic flight habits. This family contains the largest and some of the most recognizable of all California butterflies. "Foraging strategies in the small skipper butterfly, "Is Male Puddling Behaviour of Tropical Butterflies Targeted at Sodium for Nuptial Gifts or Activity? Numbers of Species There are approximately 750 species of butterflies in the United States. These migrations take place over a number of generations and no single individual completes the whole trip. Discover (and save!) The close association of butterflies with fire and warfare persisted into the Aztec civilisation; evidence of similar jaguar-butterfly images has been found among the Zapotec and Maya civilisations. Etymology [ edit ] From Middle English buterflie , butturflye , boterflye , from Old English butorflēoge , buttorflēoge , buterflēoge (from butere ( “ butter ” ) ), equivalent to butter + fly . , Butterflies are threatened in their early stages by parasitoids and in all stages by predators, diseases and environmental factors.  The bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis has been used in sprays to reduce damage to crops by the caterpillars of the large white butterfly, and the entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana has proved effective for the same purpose. The spread-winged skippers are generally dark brown and hold both sets of their wings open when landed. , Diderot's Encyclopédie cites butterflies as a symbol for the soul. The name goliath was given to it because of its size. Contact us today! They sip water from damp patches for hydration and feed on nectar from flowers, from which they obtain sugars for energy, and sodium and other minerals vital for reproduction.  The Melissa Arctic (Oeneis melissa) overwinters twice as a caterpillar. It is beyond the scope of any website to cover all of them, but the links below will take you to photographs and descriptions of about 2000 species from all families in all regions of the world. Butterfly eggs vary greatly in size and shape between species, but are usually upright and finely sculptured. Pierids are rather conspicuous white, yellow, or orange butterflies, with around 1000 species worldwide. , The pupal transformation into a butterfly through metamorphosis has held great appeal to mankind. Some species look completely different if viewed from the top or bottom sides of the wings and are included in more than one section. Dark colours in wet-season forms may help to absorb solar radiation.  The epidermis bears tufts of setae, the position and number of which help in identifying the species.  Of these, 775 are Nearctic; 7,700 Neotropical; 1,575 Palearctic; 3,650 Afrotropical; and 4,800 are distributed across the combined Oriental and Australian/Oceania regions.  Many are well camouflaged; others are aposematic with bright colours and bristly projections containing toxic chemicals obtained from their food plants. Lycaenidae (Gossamer-winged butterflies): There are over 5,000 species of this small to medium sizes butterflies.  The dry-season forms are usually more cryptic, perhaps offering better camouflage when vegetation is scarce. Several species of butterflies need more sodium than that provided by nectar and are attracted by sodium in salt; they sometimes land on people, attracted by the salt in human sweat. It is the second largest butterfly in the world. Brown Argus. In general, the butterfly species tend to be more brightly coloured than the moth species, but there are exceptions. The largest butterfly in the world is the female Queen Alexandra Birdwing butterfly (Ornithoptera alexandrae). Butterflies protect themselves from predators by a variety of means. These prolegs have rings of tiny hooks called crochets that are engaged hydrostatically and help the caterpillar grip the substrate. The eastern North American population of monarchs can travel thousands of miles south-west to overwintering sites in Mexico. The Bay Area has the highest density of endangered butterfly species in the nation. Butterfly orchid, common name of several orchid species, especially those of the genera Psychopsis and Platanthera. , Sir John Tenniel drew a famous illustration of Alice meeting a caterpillar for Lewis Carroll's Alice in Wonderland, c. 1865. The common name of this species is possibly derived from an archaic name: "the red admirable." , Butterfly larvae, or caterpillars, consume plant leaves and spend practically all of their time searching for and eating food.  These are switched by the hormone ecdysone. The agathina emperor, is a species of butterfly of the family Nymphalidae. This article tells you what you need to know about this wonderful butterfly. Some species have a reduced proboscis or maxillary palps and do not feed as adults. While this relationship is usually facultative, the mutualism turns into trickery in some Lycaenid species and the butterfly caterpillars switch from being herbivores to become obligate predators on ant larvae inside the ant mound. Among the more exotic butterfly baby names are Cressida, Indra, Mariposa, and Yara. B. , As in many other insects, the lift generated by butterflies is more than can be accounted for by steady-state, non-transitory aerodynamics. The monarch butterfly or simply monarch (Danaus plexippus) is a milkweed butterfly (subfamily Danainae) in the family Nymphalidae. Butterfly orchid, common name of several orchid species, especially those of the genera Psychopsis and Platanthera. Some are cultivated as ornamentals for their showy flowers. Butterfly fossils date to the Paleocene, about 56 million years ago. , Many tropical butterflies have seasonal forms for dry and wet seasons. 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